Сoins and medals in the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts



A large proportion of the medals displayed at the exhibition entitled "Great Russian Victories seen through Medals and Engravings" comes from the collection belonging to the well-known Russian collector, Alexander Alexandrovich Stakhovich (1884-1959). In the forty years he spent outside Russia as an émigré, he collected medals dedicated to the era of Peter the Great and preserved them for posterity. In 1983 his collection was obtained by the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts from the collector's son who lived in Paris1.

The collection contained 401 examples of the medallist's art dating from the late-17th and early-18th century including works by craftsmen from Russia, Germany, France and Sweden. Apart from the originals in the collection, copies of medals from the reign of Peter I made by Russian craftsmen of the 18th and early-19th centuries are also widely represented.

Alexander Alexandrovich Stakhovich was born on October 31, 1884 in St. Petersburg. His childhood years were spent on the family estate at Palna, which was in the Yelets District of the Orlov Province. The Stakhovich family had been well-known in Russia for over 200 years and many of its representatives made a conspicuous mark on the history of Russian culture2. Stakhovich was brought up in a milieu of progressive people with a broad education and soon became fascinated with history and in particular with the era of Peter the Great. His interest in numismatics first surfaced when he was aged twelve. In Moscow young Stakhovich used to go on Sundays to the market near Sukhareva Tower and come back with bulging pockets filled with ‘coppers'. The boy had no money with which to acquire silver coins and his uncle, Mikhail Alexandrovich Stakhovich3, on learning of this emerging hobby, made him a present of a Peter I rouble dating from 1725, explaining to the boy that it was a rare coin known as a "sun rouble". This coin marked the beginning of A.A. Stakhovich's rouble collection4.

After graduating with a gold medal from the Yelets gymnasium and studying for short periods at two French universities - in Grenoble and Toulouse - in 1903 the future collector entered the Economic Dept. of St. Petersburg's Polytechnic Institute. After graduating from it in 1908, he began his work in the civil service in the Special Chancellery for credit matters at the Ministry of Finance and that same year he was accepted as a volunteer-officer into the Preobrazhenskii Life Guards, in whose ranks he fought during the First World War. After the October Revolution of 1917 the regiment was disbanded. A.A. Stakhovich, like many other of his comrades from the Preobrazhenskii Regiment, joined the volunteers' army in the South of the country commanded by General A.I. Denikin and was later an officer in the Siberian Army under the Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief, Admiral A.V. Kolchak. He took part as a colonel in the Siberian Arctic Expedition. After Admiral Kolchak had fallen and the White Army had been routed, Stakhovich emigrated to Shanghai in 1920.While in China he married Anastasia Sergeyevna Ignatius (1889-1952)5. In 1921 the family moved to France and settled in the town of Asnières-sur-Seine a north-western suburb of Paris.

The cultural focal points of the Russian émigré community were the Russian Orthodox churches. Stakhovich was to become one of the founders of the Russian Orthodox Church of our Saviour at Asnièrres: later on he would be the historian of that parish and a member of its choir. In 1932 he was one of the organizers of the Russian Orthodox Cultural Association in the town.

Stakhovich was constantly preoccupied with the need to feed his family, which consisted of a wife and four children. In his youth he had already acquired the skills of carpenter and cabinet-maker, while living on his grandfather's Palna estate. While working as a restorer of antique furniture he was a regular visitor to Paris auctions, where he was able to acquire rare Russian antiques. Many of them had been brought to France by Russian émigrés, but objects appearing at auctions were for the most part works of art which had made their way to such auctions from the Paris and provincial homes of Russians. Stakhovich was to write: "We have transferred all our tender feelings towards our abandoned homeland to splinters of it - to objects which had at one stage been brought out of Russia, which to some degree or other, directly or indirectly were bound up with her history"6.

A.A. Stakhovich had been actively involved in the work of the "Union of Preobrazhenskii Men"7: he was a member of the commission given the task of setting up a Museum of the Preobrazhenskii Life Guards Regiment. Apart from that he took it upon himself to collect everything that was linked with the history of the regiment, in which he had served between 1908 and 1917. He was particularly interested in the era of Peter the Great, the founder of the regiment. In his small house at Asnières, the walls were covered with engravings and lithographs about the history of the regiment from the very day of its foundation. In separate display cabinets he preserved military mementoes: emblems, badges and award medals.

During the years of the Second World War Stakhovich stayed on in France with his family under the German occupation. Putting his life at risk as he did so, Stakhovich used to hide Russian prisoners of war in the cellar of his house in Asnières.

A turning-point in Stakhovich's activities as a collector was his encounter in 1945-1946 with two experts in Russian military history and medals: Pavel Vasilievich Pashkov and Vladimir Gvidovich von Richter8. On March 3, 1946 a Circle was created later to be renamed the Society for Russian Military Antiques (OLRVS), whose central office was in Paris. The Society set itself the task of keeping mementos of Russia's military past in Russian hands and preserving them from destruction and also that of forging links between those who collected such material. The number of this Society's members, who lived in over thirty different countries, grew rapidly and within five years exceeded two hundred. The Society was headed by Prince Nikita Sergeyevich Trubetskoi9. Stakhovich played an active part in the work of the Society, in particular through his work on the publication of its Voenno-istoricheskii vestnik (Military History Gazette)10.

In the spring of 1947 Stakhovich had the good fortune to visit his homeland as a member of a French government delegation in the capacity of interpreter for Charles de Gaulle at the Council of Foreign Ministers which took place in Moscow. Stakhovich's son Alexander (1921-1986) and daughter Maria (b. 1924) came to Russia at the same time as their father. During their two-month visit to Moscow, A.A. Stakhovich tried to show his children places especially dear to his heart, linked with the memories of his childhood and youth. A large proportion of his free time Stakhovich was to spend, however, in the State Historical Museum and particularly in two of its halls devoted to the era of Peter the Great. It was there that he made the acquaintance of Alexander Alexandrovich Sivers (1866-1954), Head of the Numismatics Department of the State Historical Museum.

On his return to France, A.A. Stakhovich continued his search for relics of the Petrine era with renewed energy. In March 1949 he acquired the collection of Russian medals which had been amassed in Russia by the Frenchman Gilbert Romm, tutor to Count Pavel Stroganov, a contemporary of Alexander I and one of his closest friends. The collection consisted of 180 historical Russian medals dedicated to events between 1672 and 1783, including 92 copies of medals by Philipp Heinrich Müller made by Russian craftsmen in the 18th century. Copies of medals dedicated to the Great Northern War used to be on sale at the Saint Petersburg Mint, where Romm had acquired them. Later Stakhovich was also able to acquire another collection of medals unique in its composition - that of a certain Mytnik, a native of Rostov on Don who had ended his days in Switzerland. It included 52 original medals from the reign of Peter I and rare books on Russian medals.

At a London auction in 1950 two hundred and one gold medals were sold from the famous collection of coins and medals belonging to Grand Prince Georgii Mikhailovich, which had been brought out of Russia in 1919. Stakhovich was able to purchase eight gold medals and monetary tokens from the Petrine era. The most interesting of these were the award medals distributed for participation in the Battle of Kalisz (1706), at the village of Lesnaya (1708), at Gangut (1714) and Grengam (1720). Five of the gold medals had a stamp containing the letters G and C on the obverse: these indicated that they had previously belonged to the Russian collector and researcher Emmeric K.Hutten-Czapsky (medals for the battle at Kalisz, the village of Lesnaya, Grengam and also in commemoration of the Peace of Nystad)11.

The Society for Russian Military Antiques went out of its way to prevent valuable Russian antiquities falling into the hands of foreigners. Despite the modest financial opportunities open to Russian émigrés at the auction on July 4, 1950 165 of the total number of gold medals up for sale from the collection of Grand Prince Georgii Mikhailovich were acquired by members of the Society.

On May 8, 1951 a collection consisting of 84 medals from the time of Peter I and belonging to Lord Bute came up for auction. John Bute had been Prime Minister of Britain in 1762-1763 and had focused a good deal of attention on questions of finance. Specimens of all coins being struck by European mints were sent to him and when he placed special orders, medals which had been struck previously were also dispatched to him. When Lord Bute's collection was sold, 28 of the 57 original Peter I silver medals were acquired by A.A. Stakhovich and the rest by V.G. von Richter. Only 27 copies of medals by Timophey Ivanov, which had originally been created by P.H. Müller, were bought by other individuals attending the auction.

Stakhovich's collection included medals which had been specially ordered from both Russia and Sweden, and also those created by foreign craftsmen on their own initiative, such as Christian Wermuth, G. Hautch and G. Nürnberger. Besides the original medals from the reign of Peter I the collection also included copies of such medals, to which over time scholars began to pay just as much interest as to the originals. The well-known scholar and curator of the Russian section in the numismatic collection of the Hermitage Museum, Ivan Georgievich Spasskii (1904-1990) used to emphasize that the large number of repetitions of "canonical" subjects made it clear "how long the medallist's art in Russia had outlived the ‘reserves' of skills and motifs inherited from the Petrine era. There is every reason to state that the legacy of the medallists from Peter's reign was to provide the ‘backbone' of our Russian medallists' art for a good 150 years...Medals from the era of Peter I provided an unusual ‘school' as it were, which everyone had to pass through!"12.

Copies from medals of Peter the Great's reign were fashioned by Russian craftsmen in the 18th, 19th and early-20th centuries: Osip Kalashnikov, Ivan Konstantinov, Ivan Konovalov, Vasilii Klimov (Klimentov), Timophey Ivanov, Samoyla Yudin and many others. The last well-known copyist was a medallist from the Saint Petersburg mint, Peter Stadnitskii (1853 - d.after 1916).

The collection of A.A. Stakhovich contained specimens of the medallist's art from periods after the reign of Peter the Great and also European medals and badges bearing depictions of historical figures or commemorating events bound up with Russian history. The Society for Russian Military Antiques commissioned a number of medals from the Paris mint, including some using dies of the Petrine period: Stakhovich played a major role in ensuring that this initiative bore fruit. Three of these medals are included in Stakhovich's collection: a medal "In memory of the 250th anniversary of the Founding of St. Petersburg" (1953) and two medals created using drawings by the artist N.V. Zaretskii13: "In memory of the 250th Anniversary of the founding of the Life Guards. 1700-1950" and "In memory of the 250th Anniversary of the Battle of Poltava. 1709-1759".

For the obverse of the first two medals a die was used with a portrait of Peter I executed by the French craftsman J. Duvivier for the medal "In memory of Peter I visit to Paris" (1717). For the third medal N.V. Zarestskii used a portrait of Peter I created by A.F. Vasyutinskii for the medal "In memory of the Bicentenary of the Victory at Poltava".

Alexander Alexandrovich Stakhovich was not only a passionate collector, but he also engaged in research work. The last nine years of his life he devoted to the study of medals from the era of Peter the Great. In 1959 Stakhovich completed work on his monograph, "Commentary on ‘Medals for the Achievements of the Emperor Peter the Great' by Yulii Bogdanovich Iversen), in which he provides a most thorough survey of the medal dies and the various types of the latter, which had not been indicated in Iversen's work14. Stakhovich wrote that in the 86 years since the time when Iversen's book had come out (1872) nothing new had been revealed through publications in the West or in Russia (the fundamental monograph complete with catalogue by L.S. Piskunova, researcher in the State Hermitage Museum, entitled "The Great Northern War in the Art of the Medallist" (1950) had unfortunately not yet been published at that time and was therefore not known to the wider reading public)15.

For many people outside Russia, Iversen's commentary remained the only authoritative work on the medals of the Petrine era and copies of the latter. In his research Iversen used first and foremost the extremely rich collection of medals in the Hermitage Museum, where he worked as curator, and also his own collection. Iversen also referred to the collections of Emmeric K. Hutten-Czapsky, F.F. Schubert, Count S.G. Stroganov and the collection of medals held at the University of Dorpat (mod. Tartu)16.

Stakhovich was convinced that Iversen's book had not covered all the different types of medals. It was this that led him to write his Commentary.

After studying all the available literature, Stakhovich discovered that many authors had not drawn a distinction between original medals and late copies, commemorative medals and award medals and were not mentioning the signatures or initials of engravers on the medals. He was also aware that they used to make errors and commit inaccuracies in the terms they used and the descriptions they provided.

The Society for Russian Military Antiques also encouraged the establishment of ties with most Russian collectors abroad and provided opportunities for its members to acquaint themselves with the world's finest collections. During his work on the Commentary, Stakhovich studied and compiled descriptions of items in the British Museum, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and also in the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, London. Over and above that he studied the collections of P.V. Pashkov and O.A. Pernikov (Paris)17 and the major collections of medals belonging to V.G. von Richter (London), S.V. Gladkii (New York) and A.F. Dogopolov (Los Angeles)18. He also obtained information from collectors in Australia and Central Africa. Owners of these collections used to send Stakhovich impressions of their original medals that he did not have in his own collection and sometimes they let him have copies of the above.

Stakhovich made use of all this material and all this literature in his book: he described 309 varieties of Petrine medals, 251 of which he had in his collection, while the other 58 he had identified in other collections or with the help of written sources. He himself succeeded in discovering 46 varieties which had not been mentioned by Y.B. Iversen. Among the latter were 17 variants of original medals (nine of which bearing portraits of Peter I relate to the M3 Müller variant), 11 variants of copies dating from the reign of Peter I and 18 variants of more recent copies.

Despite the fact that Stakhovich did not have access to archive materials in the USSR or contacts with Russian specialists (I.G. Spasskii, L.S. Piskunova, E.S. Shchukina), he succeeded in making a number of important discoveries.

Unlike V. G. von Richter, Stakhovich believed that P.H. Müller's medal stamps were all sent to Russia. With reference to the stylistic features of the medals, he demonstrated that the initials "OK" and "KO" on the medals were those of one and the same Russian medallist and not different ones as Iversen had maintained. That same medallist had also executed portraits of Peter I on coins. Stakhovich was also of the opinion that subsequent craftsmen making copies and with the initials IK and VK were also Russian craftsmen. He drew attention to the fact that the copies of Muller's medals with those monograms were to be found far less frequently than the actual originals19.

A.A. Stakhovich also noted that inscriptions round the edges of the medals in the Muller series were extremely rare. Of the 65 original medals which he studied, only one - the gold medal "For the Capture of Vyborg" (1710) - had an inscription round the edge, but the inscription in question had actually been for the medal "For the Capture of Riga" (1710). This showed that the inscription round the edge of a medal did not always match the event, to which the medal was dedicated. Stakhovich aptly noted that precisely the medals with inscriptions round the edge from the Hermitage collection were the first in the Muller series to have been struck (Iversen had not indicated this fact previously).

Y.B. Iversen made little reference to the obverses of copies of medals in his descriptions. Stakhovich, in his Commentary provided the first detailed survey of copies taken from Petrine medals since Iversen and drew attention to a number of new variations, which had not been noted by the previous author.

To this day Stakhovich's Commentary is still very much up to date. Not only does it provide us with an idea of the level of scientific research into Petrine medals in the mid-20th century outside Russia, but it can also be useful for any subsequent more detailed description of copies made from those medals.

A.A. Stakhovich was working on his Commentary on Y.B. Iversen's book for nine years. When he completed it at the age of 74, he wrote out the text in a final version in his immaculate hand-writing and on October 20, 1959 he announced joyfully to his daughter Maria: "Today is a historic day for me: I have just sent off my work to the Hermitage"20. Four days later Alexander Alexandrovich Stakhovich died. He was buried in the Russian cemetery at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois just outside Paris.

The medals from the collection of A.A. Stakhovich significantly enriched that of the Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, which is now regarded as one of the finest and most complete collections of medals pertaining to the reign of Peter I.


1Alexander Alexandrovich Stakhovich, the collector's son (b. 1921 in France - d. 1986 in Guatemala). After graduating from the École polytechnique in Paris in law he went on to gain a master's degree in economics from Columbia University in New York. He spoke seven languages and worked as a translator in Berlin at the Allied Control Council, in Paris at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and at the United Nations in New York (also in Geneva, Santiago de Chile). After returning to Europe he went to work in the EEC (Luxembourg, Bruxelles and Paris). He spent the last year of his life in South America, where he was to have founded a number of cultural centres so as to build up closer links between South America and Europe. He died in an air crash in Guatemala on January 18, 1986. He was married to Countess Tatyana Nikolaevna Rebinder and had two sons, Alexander and Nikolai. See: Eletskie korni. Semya Stakhovichei. Ocherki istorii Eletskogo uezda (Yelets Roots. The Stakhovich Family. Outline History of the Yelets District), 1996, Issue 2, Yelets, p. 236. 

2Members of the Stakhovich family were on friendly terms with Lev Tolstoi. The collector's grandfather, Alexander Alexandrovich (1830-1913), who according to testimony left behind by Konstantin Stanislavsky had been an "amateur actor and splendid reciter" often used to perform at literary evenings at Tolstoi's estate, Yasnaya Polyana. Tolstoi dedicated his story Kholstomer (Strider) to another member of the Stakhovich family - Mikhail Alexandrovich Stakhovich (1819-1858). The subject of the story had been thought up by M.A.Stakhovich and Tolstoi heard about it after the author's death. The collector's uncle Alexei Alexandrovich Stakhovich (1856-1919) played a prominent role in the history of the Moscow Arts Theatre. He was a member of its Board and became an actor there in 1907: he gave talented performances as several of Chekhov's characters there. Marina Tsvetaeva dedicated a cycle of four poems to the memory of Alexei Stakhovich. Well-known figures from the world of culture used to visit the Stakhovich estate at Palna including Tolstoi and Stanislavsky with a group of actors from the Moscow Arts Theatre and the painter I.E. Repin, who painted a portrait of the owner of the estate (the collector's grandfather) and his daughter, Sofia Alexandrovna Stakhovich (1862-1942).

3Mikhail Alexandrovich Stakhovich (1861-1923), the collector's uncle, was a public figure and lawyer. Between 1892 and 1895 he was the district marshal of the nobility in Oryol. On his initiative a library named after Pushkin was set up in Yelets. In 1907 he was elected to the State Council to represent the nobility of the Oryol province. He was a deputy to the first two State Dumas. In 1917 he was appointed Governor General of Finland by the Provisional Government and, in September 1917, Russian ambassador to Spain. After the October Revolution, Mikhail Alexandrovich moved from Spain to the South of France, where he took up residence in Aix-en-Provence. He was buried in the Russian cemetery at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois near the grave of the Russian writer, Ivan Bunin. See: Eletskie korni..., p. 222.

4Apart from his collection of medals Stakhovich also possessed a large collection of Russian coins. It consisted of 355 specimens of roubles, which included the following: a ‘rouble' of the Empress Elizabeth (Peter's daughter) bearing traces of it having been re-struck from a rouble of Tsar Ioann Antonovich, an extremely rare platinum coin - a ‘3-rouble' coin of 1840 from the former collection of Grand Prince Georgii Mikhailovich and also commemorative coins. Apart from these roubles Stakhovich also amassed a large collection of silver and copper coins from the imperial period.

5Stakhovich married his first wife, Maria Vladimirovna Andreyevskaya, in 1915, who was the daughter of a member of the State Duma and marshal of the nobility in Tambov. In 1916 he became a widower. In 1920 he married his second wife in Shanghai (China), Anastasia Sergeyevna Ignatius (1889-1952), daughter of an assistant to the Head Engineer of the Chinese and Eastern Railway, Sergei Vladimirovich Ignatius (1860-1906).

6A.A. Stakhovich, 1958: Kommentarii k "Medalyam na deyaniya Imperatora Petra Velikogo" Yuliya Vobdanovicha Iversena (Commentary on "Medals for the Achievements of the Emperor, Peter the Great" by Yulii Bogdanovich Iversen) [typed manuscript], Paris, p.1.

7The "Union of Preobrazhenskii Men" was part of the "Russian Union of the Combined Armed Forces" (RUCAF) formed in 1922 and headed by Grand Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich. The main purpose of this Union was to keep intact the Russian Army which was scattered through various countries. The Commodore of the Union of Preobrazhenskii Men" was Lieutenant General of the General Staff, Arsenii Anatolievich Gulevich (1866-1947).

8Pavel Vasilievich Pashkov (b. 1895 in Kharkov [Ukraine] - d. 1974 in France). In Petrograd he had passed out from the Alekseyevskoye Military College in 1915. He had been a lieutenant in the 17th Turkestan Rifles Regiment. Pashkov fought in the First World War and the Civil War. In 1920 he found himself in Constantinople with the Russian Army. After emigrating he lived in Paris. He was one of the organizers and an honorary member of the Society for Russian Military Antiques. In the course of five years he worked as both Secretary and Treasurer of that society and also the initiator of the "Information Sheet" which it issued. He put together a collection of from Russian institutions providing military training and also collected Order insignia, award medals, badges and monetary tokens of the Russian Empire and literature relating to such subjects. Pashkov also studied this material and described it. He bequeathed his unique collection (badges and medals, uniforms, books, pictures, engravings, photographs and documents) to the Society for the Friends of the journal Voennaya Byl (Military Bygones). He wrote a book entitled: Ordena, znaki i emblemy russkoi emigratsii, 1920-1944 (Medals, Badges and Emblems belonging to Russian Émigrés. 1920-1944), Paris, 1961. See: "Voennaya Byl". Paris, 1952-1974. Ukazatel materialov ("Military Bygones" Paris 1952-1974. Index of Materials), GIM (State Historical Museum), 2003, Moscow. Issue 128, p. 219; G.V.Vilinbakhov, 2003: "On Certain Little-known Works on the History of Russian Military Decorations (some Additions to the Historiography of Russian Phaleristics)", Materialy zasedaniya, posvyashchennogo yubileyu M.A. Dobrovolskoi (Materials on a Meeting dedicated to the Jubilee of M.A. Dobrovolskoi), Saint Petersburg, pp. 61-62.
Vladimir Gvidovich von Richter (publishing as V.R., or VFR) (b. 1886 in Ivangorod - d. 1968 in Warsaw). He completed his education in the Corps of Pages military school (1905) and the Nikolaevsk Cavalry College (1908) after which he served in the 13th Uhlans' Vladimir Regiment. After 1912 he was in the Reserve. In 1914 he joined the 4th Uhlans' Kharkov Regiment and was then assigned to the 37th Siberian Rifles Regiment. In 1915 he was put in charge of a detachment of the cavalry reconnaissance in that regiment. For his reconnaissance of enemy fortifications he was awarded the Order of St. George (Fourth Class) and a Sword of St. George (1916). After being seriously wounded at the end of 1916 he was made assistant to the Head of Supplies at the Nikolaevsk Military Academy. In 1919 he began to serve in the Polish Army and commanded a squadron in the Akhmatovich Tartar Regiment and subsequently served in the 13th Uhlans' Vilna Regiment. He attained the rank of colonel but regained his commission in 1921. As an émigré he lived in Spain, France, Morocco, Italy, Poland and Great Britain. He was a member of the Society for Russian Military Antiques. He was on the staff of the Numismatic Department of the British Museum and a corresponding member of the Medals Section of the National Library in Paris. Richter was famous as a collector and in the fields of numismatics, faleristics and philately. He wrote over 80 articles and notices, which after his death were collected together and published by his widow in a volume entitled Sobranie trudov po russkoi voennoi medalistike i istorii (Collection of Works on Russian Military Medals and History), Paris, 1972. See: the journal "Military Bygones", Paris, 1972-1974, Index of Materials, p.225.

9Nikita Sergeyevich Trubetskoi, Prince (b. 1877 in Tiflis and d. 1963 in Paris). He graduated from the Corps of Pages military school (1898). He was а colonel in the 17th Dragoons Nizhegorod Regiment and later emigrated to France. He was the Chairman of the Society for Russian Military Antiques. See: the journal "Military Bygones", Paris, 1952-1974, Index of Materials, p. 237.

10The Society for Russian Military History (OLRVS) published a journal entitled Voenno-istoricheskii vestnik (Military History Gazette), which was dedicated mainly to the history of the Russian Army and also to the First World War and Civil War.

11V.V. Uzdenikov, 2007: "On stamps belonging to Hutten-Czapsky", Нумизматика, Nо. 14, pp. 22-23.

12Letter from I.G. Spasskii to L.A. Zavorotnaya dated October 29, 1985. Sheet 1 in the archive of L.A. Zavorotnaya.

13Nikolai Vasilievich Zaretskii (b. 1876 in the Tambov Province of Russia and d. 1958 in Cormeilles, France) a graphic artist, painter and collector. He graduated from the Tver' Cavalry College and the Drawing School of the Society for Promotion of the Arts in St. Petersburg (1912). He studied under D.N. Kardovskii and Y.F. Tsionglinskii at the Academy of Arts. In 1915-1917 he worked as an artist in the technical section of the Main Military Supplies Department. In 1919 he emigrated via Yalta to Constantinople. At the beginning of 1920 ne moved to Czechoslovakia where he was a member of the Pushkin Committee in Prague and created illustrations for works by Alexander Pushkin. While in Prague he curated exhibitions entitled "Russian Society in the time of Pushkin" (1932) and "Drawings by Russian Artists" (1933). He was one of the organizers and the last director of the Museum of Russian Cultural History in Zbraslav (1941-1945). In 1951 he moved to France where he took up residence in the Zemgora old people's home in Cormeilles near Paris. In 1953-1957 he organized a number of exhibitions of his works in Cormeilles. See: Khudozhniki russkoi emigratsii (Russian Émigré Artists), 2005, Moscow, p. 356.

14Y.B. Iversen, 1872: Medali na deyaniya Imperatora Petra Velikogo v vospominanie dvukhsotletiya so dnya rozhdeniya preobrazovatelya Rossii (Medals for the Achievements of Peter the Great in memory of the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Ruler who reformed Russia), Saint Petersburg.

15L.S. Piskunova, 1950: Severnaya voina v medaliernom iskusstve (The Great Northern War in the Art of the Medallist). All that exists is the advance copy of this work, which at present is kept in the Numismatics Department of the State Hermitage Museum.

16The gold medal "For the Battle at Lesnaya" (1708) from the collection of Emmeric K. Hutten-Czapsky, which was described by Y.B. Iversen was not acquired by the Hermitage Museum in time. It found its way into the collection of Grand Prince Georgii Mikhailovich. Later, at a London auction in 1950, it was acquired by A.A. Stakhovich and is now held in the State Museum of Fine Arts.

17O.A. Pernikov, collector and member of the Society for Russian Military Antiques. In his day he had acquired at a London auction a major part of the gold medals from the collection of Grand Prince Georgii Mikhailovich. Pernikov died in 1952 in Paris and his collection of medals is now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. See: A.A. Stakhovich, Commentary..., p.4.

18Sergei Vladimirovich Gladkii, member of the Society for Russian Military Antiques and its representative in America (USA), member of the board of the Society of Russian Naval Officers in America (USA). He is the editor of the journal Morskie Zapiski (Naval Notes). Gladkii is a collector of Orders insignia, medals, badges and monetary tokens, and also literature on these subjects. He lived in New York (USA). Alexander Fyodorovich Dolgopolov, member of the Society for Russian Military Antiques. He was interested in literature and documents pertaining to the discovery of America (Alaska), collected commemorative and award medals and paper money of the Russian Empire. He lived in Los Angeles (California, USA). See: G.V. Vilinbakhov, Op. cit., pp. 63-64.

19Later E.S. Shchukina succeeded in deciphering the initials: OK (Osip Kalashnikov), IK and VK (Ivan Konovalov and Vasilii Klimov [Klimenotov]). See: E.S. Shchukina, 2002: Monogrammy i podpisi na russkikh medalyakh XVIII- nachala XX vekov (Monograms and signatures on Russian medals of the 18th,19th and early-20th centuries), Kiev, pp. 29, 37, 51, 171.

20Yelets Roots..., p. 234. Maria Alexandrovna Stakhovich (1924, France). Maria Alexandrovna obtained her higher education in statistics and also completed the tertiary courses in theology for women organized by the Russian Student Christian Movement (RSCM). M.A. Stakhovich taught Russian at the University of Nanterre. In 1953 she married her second cousin Alexei Mikhailovich Stakhovich. The couple has a daughter Maria Alexeyevna Stakhovich-Milkovich. She is the author of several works devoted to questions of theology. Among those published in Russia are: M.A. Stakhovich, 1992: Fatimskie yavleniya Bozhiei Materi - uteshenie Rossii (Appearances of the Mother of God to Fatima - Consolation for Russia), Moscow and M.A. Stakhovich, 1997: Verit li Vatikanu? (Should we believe the Vatican?), Moscow.